2019年4月15日 - 澳门葡京赌场


Existing U.S. laws are in place to safeguard America’s interests and to
punish perpetrators for stealing trade secrets or engaging in illegal
activities. We absolutely support the well-established policies
regarding intellectual property, employment, and governance of conflicts
of interest. Such policies have been further enhanced in recent years
with more detailed and specific requirements from various federal and
state agencies, including the National Institutes of Health . The vast
majority of scientists and students of Chinese descent are law-abiding
citizens, residents, or visitors who have followed these rules.

At the frontier of human genome editing

Scientific research can be supported by any legitimate funding agency,
most of which are governmental across the entire world. Funding of
individual scientists by multiple sources is not an issue of concern,
even when funding comes from different countries.

Unfortunately, instances have recently come to light where certain
scientists, including some with links to foreign institutions and/or
governments, have violated the honor-based systems and practices of the
American research enterprise . Convened to address the issue, The NIH
Advisory Committee to the Director working group carefully considered
how to ensure fairness of the grant process and intellectual property
principles, while seeking to minimize jeopardy to innocent foreign
nationals and important international collaborations. The working group
recommendations apply to all foreign scientists, not just those of
Chinese descent.

The potential use of genomic engineering to eradicate the genetic bases
for diseases is also being explored by groups of university researchers
in the southern mega-city of Guangzhou. One of these groups recently
reported conducting a leading-edge experiment, but with only limited
success, in editing the genomes of human embryos to confer genetic
resistance to HIV infections. A similar paper published in 2015 by
researchers at Sun Yat-sen University ignited a global debate over
whether this type of research should be conducted on human embryos
because of its potential to trigger genetic changes that ripple across
future generations. Since then, leaders of the national science
academies in the United States, the United Kingdom, and China have met
and reached a consensus that while this type of research could continue,
any applications should be prohibited. The lead organizer of the summit
involving the three science academies was David Baltimore, president
emeritus of the California Institute of Technology. He adds that Chinese
researchers can move forward with embryonic genome editing studies as
long as “experiments are limited to 14 days of in vitro growth and no
implantation is attempted.” The genomics teams at Sun Yat-sen University
and at Guangzhou Medical University, says Baltimore, represent “an
effort of two labs to move into the forefront of the research.” Some
scholars suggest that China’s support for these studies, in view of the
U.S. Congressional ban on federal funding for research involving
modifying the genomes of human embryos, could help scientists across
Chinese universities move ahead in this realm of gene editing.


不久前,Science杂志在线发表一篇题为“NIH letters asking about undisclosed
foreign ties rattle US

Particle physics breakthroughs

Because no government agency for science funding holds patents or other
intellectual properties resulting from research supported by their
grants, it is completely outside the scope of the NIH but in the realm
of institutions to protect their intellectual properties (IP) and to
assign proper rights to the collaborators in cases of collaborations.
NIH has funded researchers in China for more than 30 years. Naturally,
all those supported by the NIH also have grants from Chinese funding
agencies. Are you going to say that all these investigators represent
foreign influences Furthermore, all their IPs belong to their
institutions. It is hypocritical for the NIH to argue about IPs when
neither the Chinese nor the US government funding agencies are involved
in IPs. The vast majority of grants never lead to valuable IPs. If a few
researchers fail to report multiple sources, it is but a small fault of
an individual with minor consequences, which was blown out of proportion
by your August 20th statement as foreign interferences.

Racial profiling harms science

Future home of particle colliders

At such junctures, NIH should discard short-sighted collaborations with
the FBI or self-degrading fear-mongering of “foreign interferences”, and
instead embrace efforts by all countries to support biomedical research.


By Kevin Holden Dec. 16, 2016 , 9:00 AM

All scientists have the right to work wherever they choose, and the
freedom to collaborate with whomever they deem appropriate.

Open data access and data sharing are important for accelerating
research advancement and can be implemented without putting U.S.
security at risk. NIH has espoused such policies for years . Most
Chinese-American scientists believe that biomedical research benefits
all mankind and that multinational collaborations accelerate scientific
progress and discovery. However, some NIH recommendations could target
collaborations if implemented with bias. For example, NIH recommends
fostering “trusted relationships” p. 12 in ] with foreign partners but
does not specify whether the trust must be established through official
channels. NIH also suggests more disclosure requirements for foreign
collaborators than domestic colleagues (pp. 12–13 in which could hinder

Reversing “brain drain”


In recent decades, there have been several high-profile cases in which
Chinese-American scientists were wrongfully accused of spying e.g., ].
Although all charges were eventually dropped and/or the individuals
legally exonerated, the lawsuits have had not only devastating effects
on the careers of these individuals but also a chilling and negative
impact on the Chinese-American scientific community at large. It has
also become increasingly difficult for Chinese students and scholars to
obtain visas to enter the United States for scientific meetings, visits,
and research opportunities .

According to Ling, the massive neutrino study he is working on is
helping China move closer to realizing its plans to host an
international coalition of elite physicists around its proposed
supercollider projects. China’s top-echelon physicists, in tandem with
leading scientists worldwide, are designing a ringed particle smasher
measuring up to 100 kilometers in circumference that would initially be
configured as an electron–positron collider, and would later also host a
proton–proton accelerator. “After so many years of preparation and
joining world-wide experiments, now is a fantastic time for China to
host the Circular Electron–Positron Collider and the Super Proton–Proton
Collider,” Ling says. “More importantly, it is also China’s
responsibility to contribute to advancing high-energy physics and
humanity’s knowledge about the universe.” Jie Gao, one of the leaders of
the twin circular collider projects at the CAS Institute of High Energy
Physics, says southern Guangdong Province is a leading contender to host
the ringed accelerators. Chinese and American scientists who are laying
the groundwork for what would be the largest and most sophisticated
particle physics lab in history predict it could attract thousands of
the world’s experimental physicists to take up positions in China’s
planned “collider city.” Alain Blondel, one of the primary shapers of
the Future Circular Collider being mapped out by CERN (the European
Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland, says “it would be
fantastic” if the leaders of CERN and of the Chinese supercollider
program wind up competing to attract the globe’s foremost physicists.
Tao Liu, a physicist at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,
echoes this sentiment. He says China’s planned collider project is the
most exciting ever to capture the attention of leading physics
professors and science students across Hong Kong. The supercolliders,
Liu adds, will “boost development in science and society in the coming
decades, [and] will inspire young talents of this and future
generations to devote themselves to the exploration of basic science.”



From rice paddies to space stations


On behalf of the Society of Chinese Bioscientists in America , the
Chinese American Hematologist and Oncologist Network , and the Chinese
Biological Investigators Society , we write to express our concerns
about the recent political rhetoric and policies that single out
students and scholars of Chinese descent working in the United States as
threats to U.S. national interests e.g., and pp. 6–7 in ]. These
developments have led to confusion, fear, and frustration among these
highly dedicated professionals, who are in danger of being singled out
for scape-goating, stereotyping, and racial profiling. U.S. policies
must avoid targeting, as Representative Judy Chu (D–California) put it,
“an entire ethnic group of people for suspicion that they’re spies for
China” .

澳门葡京赌场 1


It is our sincere hope that these actions, which we believe amount to
racial profiling, will stop immediately and that increased security
measures will not be used to tarnish law-abiding scientists and limit
normal and productive scientific exchanges. We thus urge both federal
and local governments to work with our academic and research
institutions to create a respectful, transparent, and productive
environment for everyone, regardless of their ethnic origin. We also
hope that scientific collaborations and exchanges between the United
States and foreign academic communities will be strengthened rather than
suppressed. American scientific advances and technological innovations
are the result of global efforts, and their future depends on the
continuation of time-tested traditions of openness and cooperation on
the global stage.

Xin Jin



Just across the border from Hong Kong, universities and the local
government in Shenzhen are channeling their expanding funds into making
globally recognized advances in life science research and applications.
“Shenzhen has repositioned itself as one of the world’s leading centers
for genetics research,” says Bicheng Yang, communications director at
the genomics outfit BGI, which is moving forward with plans to create a
specialized life science college in partnership with the South China
University of Technology (SCUT) and the University of Copenhagen. Four
years ago, BGI signed a cooperation pact with the Gates Foundation to
set up joint training programs with the University of the Chinese
Academy of Sciences and SCUT. “The aim is to integrate the new college
more and more into scientific research that stretches across the
continents,” she explains. Xin Jin, a genomics expert with dual research
positions at BGI and at the SCUT, says, “One of the most exciting
projects we are working on is the Chinese Million-ome Project, aimed at
decoding one million Chinese genomes across the entire country.” The
university and BGI are also exploring the use of genomics to map the
genetic evolution of current populations dating back to the early modern
humans who trekked to Asia more than 40,000 years ago, and their
admixture with more archaic species, adds Jin, who coauthored a study on
this topic published in Nature.



When China’s leaders decided a generation ago to experiment with opening
the People’s Republic to global market forces, they created an
archipelago of special economic zones (SEZs) along the nation’s southern
coast. South China’s resulting transformation into an export powerhouse
has helped make the country a world trade titan. Now the region is part
of a new round of reforms aimed at reshaping China into a globally
connected pioneer in the sciences. China’s universities, along with the
National Natural Science Foundation and the Chinese Academy of Sciences
(CAS), have created award schemes aimed at attracting scientists trained
in the United States or Europe to take positions across southern China
and to help spur the next stage of the region’s metamorphosis. These
strategies are helping power research breakthroughs in the spheres of
space science, physics, genomics, and medicine.

Thomas Jefferson, the founder of your alma mater the University of
Virginia, was an intellectual giant, and a champion for freedom. Had he
been alive today, would he applaud your letter or action


The drive to transmute the country’s burgeoning economic might into
scientific prowess is evident across southern China. Shenzhen,
crisscrossed by rice paddies when it was designated an SEZ, is now one
of the world’s fastest growing cities and hosts one of China’s leading
genomics outfits. Similarly, the tropical island of Hainan, ringed by
fishing villages when it too became an SEZ, opened its new space launch
center this summer. Thousands of visitors watched the premier liftoff of
the new Long March 7 rocket, along with the prototype of a
next-generation human space capsule that it carried into orbit. CAS
leaders say spaceflight is a high-priority sector for heightened
international cooperation. China recently signed an agreement with the
United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, outlining Beijing’s
pledge “to enable United Nations member states, particularly developing
countries, to conduct space experiments onboard China’s space station,
as well as to provide flight opportunities for astronauts and payload
engineers.” CAS is stepping up its twin drives to boost collaboration on
transborder science projects and to increase its standing in worldwide
science. One area in which it has made headway is in studies
encompassing the formation of the universe, the earliest galaxies, and
the solar system. Planetary scientist Yuan Li, a postdoctoral researcher
at Rice University in Houston, says he was persuaded to accept a
position at the CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry through a Global
Youth Experts award. Li is the lead author of a recent Nature Geoscience
study, cowritten with colleagues at Rice, which posited that the
life-enabling carbon in the Earth’s crust might be the result of a
collision between the proto-Earth and a Mercury-like planet about 4.4
billion years ago. That collision was distinct from the interplanetary
smashup that scientists believe gave birth to the Moon during the early
formation of the solar system. “During the accretion of our Earth, there
were probably numerous collisions between the proto-Earth and small
planetary embryos,” says Li. This early period in the solar system’s
evolution, he adds, might have resembled a massive billiards game
involving the inner protoplanets crashing into each other before
entering stabilized orbits around the sun. Li’s paper is part of a
steady rise of articles written by Chinese scholars and published in the
world’s leading academic journals. He says China’s expanding
constellation of incentives for scientists is a powerful attraction for
scholars trained in the West. “In the past five years, thousands of
young scientists like me have returned to China,” he says.

Dr. Collins: what you said then is the truth.


In another region of south China, at the Guangdong University of Foreign
Studies, Jing Yang has been conducting research with colleagues at
Pennsylvania State University on structural changes in the brain that
occur when students begin studying a second language. Yang, formerly a
postdoctoral fellow at Penn State, says she joined Guangdong University
of Foreign Studies because the school “is well known for cultivating
international talent.” She says she aims to help transform the
university’s language center into “a leading research center for
linguistics and applied linguistics,” and adds that the government is
providing large-scale grant support to reach that goal. China’s economic
ascent and the increasingly attractive recruitment packages offered by
its universities are becoming extremely appealing to Chinese scholars
who have studied in the West, Yang says, and are beginning to help
reverse a decades-long brain drain, during which scholars left the
country to pursue their careers elsewhere. While many Chinese scientists
still opt to stay in Europe or the United States after obtaining an
advanced degree there, Yang observes that “some scholars, like me, chose
to go home to work for a brighter future for ourselves and also for our
country.” These scholars, she adds, are helping create clusters of
excellent scientific research across China. “The rise of China
definitely is not limited to the economy,” Yang explains. “We hope our
country can excel in science, culture, and technology too. It is a
double win for China and the world.”


澳门葡京赌场 2

Mining the genome

You are highly respected as a scientist who has carried out outstanding
research on genetic mutations underlying human diseases, and as a leader
of the NIH whose mission “is to seek fundamental knowledge about the
nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that
knowledge to enhance health, lengthen life, and reduce illness and


China is interested not only in the macroworld, it is also keen on the
microworld. Scientists with an advanced degree in physics who have
accepted positions at south China universities are helping track and
explain how neutrinos morph into different types, or generations, as
they fly through space at nearly the speed of light. These physicists
have joined an international team of scientists who are studying nuclear
reactor–produced neutrinos in the southern Chinese seaside resort of
Daya Bay. Collaboration on these experiments involves universities and
physicists stretching across four continents, says Kam-Biu Luk, a
professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, and a
distinguished visiting scholar at the University of Hong Kong. Luk, who
heads the international participation in the project, says this
exploration of the long-shrouded world of neutrinos is one of the most
outstanding experiments in particle physics ever conducted by joint
groups of universities based in China and the United States. Physicists
at the University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong,
Shenzhen University, Dongguan University of Technology, and Sun Yat-sen
University have joined counterparts at Yale, Princeton, and other
laboratories in this expanding experiment. Chinese scientists involved
in these neutrino observations, along with the international team headed
by Luk, were awarded the prestigious Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental
Physics in 2016, for outlining how neutrinos transform as they speed
through the cosmos. They won, according to the prize citation, for
“revealing a new frontier beyond, and possibly far beyond, the standard
model of particle physics.” Due to the rapidly growing neutrino physics
programs in China, Jiajie Ling, a postdoctoral researcher at the
University of Illinois who is now a professor in physics at Sun Yat-sen
University, opted to take a position there with start-up funding support
from the Thousand Talents Program for Distinguished Young Scholars. He
is helping to guide a new series of experiments at Daya Bay: the search
for the hypothesized “sterile neutrino.” This proposed fourth type of
neutrino could be a form of the elusive dark matter that scientists have
been searching for since the last century, says Ling.

Furthermore, the following, as reported in Scientific American is
appalling: “Collins also wrote to roughly 10,000 NIH grant institutions
encouraging them to set up briefings with FBI field offices about
threats to intellectual property and foreign interference.” No SCIENTIST
in the entire history of humankind has asked FBI equivalents to monitor
“foreign interference”. Some governments have done so, but not at the
initiation of leading scientists or scientists in leadership positions.
Even in the worst times of the Soviet Union, leading scientists had the
spine to do the opposite: the physicist Pyotr Kapitsa rescued his
student Lev Landau when the latter was investigated for anti-Stalin
activities in the peak of Stalin’s power (and terror).




Your letter and your action of encouraging FBI collaborations are thus
extraordinary deviations from the normal practice of science.




Attached please find an article (“The Singular Moral Compass of Otto
Krayer”) about a German pharmacologist, who, while in his early budding
career, refused to take up a chairmanship opened up by Nazi firing of a
Jewish scientist. While he could have accepted the position, without
blaming himself for societal ills, Krayer wrote a letter of refusal,
fully anticipating damages to his own career. He was thereafter barred
from all academic jobs and even the use of libraries in Germany. He had
to leave Germany, not because he was Jewish, but because he stood up for
what was right and against what was wrong.

profiling harms


We are determined to maintain the integrity of the NIH research
enterprise, but we are also deeply concerned about the issues raised by
these three societies. NIH is committed to avoiding overreaction,
stigmatization, harassment, and profiling. We will use our influence and
bully pulpit as necessary to speak out against such prejudicial actions,
for which there is no place in the biomedical research community.

The late John McCain once remarked: “I like to think that in the
toughest moments I’d do the right thing, but you never know until you
are tested”.



澳门葡京赌场 3




The National Institutes of Health appreciates the concerns expressed in
the thoughtful letter from Lu et al. on behalf of the Society of Chinese
Bioscientists in America, the Chinese American Hematologist and
Oncologist Network, and the Chinese Biological Investigators Society.
NIH greatly values scientists of Chinese descent as members of the
American biomedical research enterprise. For decades, scientists of
Chinese descent have contributed substantially to scientific innovations
at research institutions across the United States. Collaborations with
Chinese institutions have been critical to moving science forward. The
vast majority of Chinese scientists working in America are honorable,
conscientious, and dedicated to the cause of expanding knowledge for the
betterment of humankind.

澳门葡京赌场 ,Your own research advisor at Yale came from a culture of great talents
which were made scapegoats whenever Westerners run into troubles of
their own making. The Jewish people were often persecuted, sometimes
blatantly and sometimes in a thinly veiled manner. Your August 20th
letter is obviously targeting scientists of Chinese origin, making
Chinese as the new scapegoat of anti-intellectual irrationality in the


Director, Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing



I am sympathetic that most US scientists, while always taught, and often
self-assumed, to be morally upright, usually do not understand history
and do not know how to deal with political pressures of the evil nature,
such as those in Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union.


If funding agencies decide to pool in resources for worthy research,
that should be welcome, not investigated.

Francis Collins, M.D., Ph.D.


Simple Suggestions



China is actively planning to start the Chinese Brain Initiative. The US
NIH already has a Brain Initiative. China is interested in supporting
international collaborations in brain research, partly to promote
research that will benefit people of all countries, partly as an effort
to pay our share for common goal snow that China is not as poor as


Scientists with Spines Do Not Bend to Politicians

is in the eyes of the beholder”。在同一电视访谈中,Giuliani称“facts are
in the eyes of the beholder”。




In the end, Nazism and Stalinism had damaged Germany and Russia the
most. Germany, which was leading in mathematics, physics, chemistry and
your own field of genetics before Hitler, has never been able to regain
its scientific strength to the level reached before Nazism.


Because it is not related to the military and because of its universal
values to the humankind, international exchanges and collaborations are
the easiest in the biomedical sciences.

Your August 20th statement is shocking because it is the first time when
any government official has issued a statement restricting scientific
collaborations in peacetime.



You publicly stated a few years ago in Shanghai: science has no national
boundaries because it belongs to the humankind. This was translated and
widely applauded.

Washington, DC

It is time for American scientists to show their spines.

Will leading American scientists do the right thing, or at least not
willingly and proactively do the wrong thing History will remember how
American scientists stand a true test of character and honor.


Dear Dr. Collins,



Sincerely yours,

Your Conscientious Heritage

澳门葡京赌场 4

Intellectual legacy and heritage have been exchanged internationally for
a long time. The West has learned about paper manufacturing, the
compass, the gunpowder, and printing from China. The US has learned much
from Europe.

The National Institutes of Health


Freedom of Scientists and Their Choices of Support


The Eternality of Science and the Moral Courage of Scientists



This is certainly the toughest moment so far for most American
scientists, especially those in leadership positions. One can only wish
that it would not get any tougher.


As recent as 2015, your own NIH and the National Natural Science
Foundation of China (NSFC) announced the U.S.-China Program for
Biomedical Collaborative Research (R01)
(). So,
the statement in your August 20th letter that “NIH is aware that some
foreign entities have mounted systematic programs to influence NIH
researchers and peer reviewers” is a total lie unless you are implying
that the NIH is an initiating and active partner in such a conspiracy.
This is clearly targeting China because Russia can barely fund its
science, Europe and Japan have not launched any new programs. China has
launched new programs to recruit scientists, regardless of national
origin but most are scientists of Chinese origin because of linguistic
and cultural differences. China has not tried to influence NIH
researchers or peer reviewers. The “Thousand Talent Program” is to
recruit more scientists, not to influence any other country. NIH is
shameless in distorting the truth. Any and every country has the right
to recruitment. The world should welcome more and more countries to
invest in science and support scientists because science serves the
entire world.


Science is eternal, whereas politics, as the kind practiced in the
present day US, is transient. History has proved that bad politics
perish, as in the cases of the Soviet Union, and Nazi Germany. The
Trumpism US will be an exception only if the Sun rises from the West in
the future.


Hope for More International Collaborations


Truth is truth. No scientist can bend the truth just because political
leaders or lawyers say otherwise.

注1:Truth is truth,源自2018年8月美国总统的律师Rudy
Giuliani在接受电视访谈时称“truth isn’t truth”, 被反驳。

History can repeat itself if we do not learn from the past, even if the
past was in other countries.



Any scientist willing to serve on the Advisory Committee stipulated in
your August 10th letter will be morally tainted. The Committee should be
disbanded. The letter should be retracted.


Dean, Division of Sciences, Peking University

饶毅, 哲学博士


国立健康研究 院(NIH)院长

撰文 | 饶 毅

Francis Collins医学博士、哲学博士


At this point, Trumpism in the US can mainly threaten science with
reduction of budgets, nothing compared to careers ruined or lives
destroyed. If allowed to go on the slippery road, how do we know that
competing labs will not report on each other for foreign interferences
or influences when a large number of students and a significant number
of faculty members are foreign-born Should future discussions of science
be separated into “American” and “Foreign” Should future classrooms,
meeting rooms, etc., be similarly separated Should annual meetings of
academic societies and associations refuse to have “foreign influences”
Should NIH funded domestic and international meetings be monitored by
the FBI


With Trumpism presently prevalent in the US, it is a testing time for
many Americans including American scientists.


附件推荐一篇文章(“The Singular Moral Compass of Otto

China, having led the world economically before the birth of the US, was
relatively poor economically and could not afford to fund science for
most of the time when the US has been in existence. China is now capable
of funding science, both for the development of China and as a
contribution to the world. China funds pure mathematics and astronomy,
which are not expected to generate any economic benefits for any
particular country in a short time, if ever. The stated mission of the
NIH is not to generate economic benefits, either, a fact that should not
change in the eyes of the beholder. Thus funding for most of the
biomedical sciences should not be a source of conflict between different

Fruits of biomedical research will be enjoyed by all humans; science
will remain a major bridge of mutual understanding between people of
different countries and cultures.

Yi Rao, Ph.D.


澳门葡京赌场 5

NIH is lauded for its contributions to improving the health of
Americans, as well as the health of the humankind. Its tradition and
standards are the heritage of human civilizations, to which ancient
cultures from the Greek, the Indian, and the Chinese have all


Whether collaborating or competing, Dr. Lap-Chee Tsui played an
important role in the success of discovering the cystic fibrosis
susceptibility gene in the 1980s, for which you shared the credit. In
the 1980s, China was poor and could not offer financial support. Had the
same happened today, it is possible that Dr. Tsui would also receive
support from China. Would you call the FBI to investigate him



Professor and Director, PKU-IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research



China has a long tradition of valuing intellectual contributions, but
our science has not been as good as it should. To become a responsible
member of the world, China is now increasing its support in the
sciences. All countries should be welcome for their support of science.
If there are competitions, the Olympic Games have shown us how to



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